Sunday, November 13, 2016

Using the Nitrokey HSM with GnuTLS applications

The Nitrokey HSM is an open hardware security module, in the form of a smart card token, which is used to isolate a server's private key from the application. That is, if you have an HTTPS server, such a hardware security module will prevent an attacker which temporarily obtained privileged access on the server (e.g., via an exploit like heartbleed), from copying the server's private key, allowing for impersonating it. See my previous post for a more elaborate discussion on that defense mechanism.

The rest of this post will explain how you can initialize this token and utilize it from GnuTLS applications, and in the process explain more about smart card and HSM usage in applications. For the official (and more advanced) Nitrokey setup instructions and tips you can see this OpenSC page, another interesting guide is here.

HSMs and smart cards


Nitrokey HSM is something between a smart card and an HSM. However, there is no real distinction between smart cards and Hardware Security Module from a software perspective. Hardware-wise one expects better (in terms of cost to defeat) tamper-resistance on HSMs, and at the same time sufficient performance for server loads. An HSM module is typically installed on PCI slots, USB, while smart cards are mainly USB or via a card reader.

On the software-side both smart cards and HSMs are accessed the same way, over the PKCS#11 API. That is an API which abstracts keys from operations, i.e., the API doesn't require direct access to the private key data to complete the operation. Most crypto libraries today support this API directly as GnuTLS and NSS do, or via an external module like OpenSSL (i.e., via engine_pkcs11).

Each HSM or smart card, comes with a "driver", i.e., a PKCS#11 module, which one had to specify on legacy applications. On modern systems, which have p11-kit, the available drivers are registered with p11-kit and applications can obtain and utilize them on run-time (see below for more information). For Nitrokey the OpenSC driver is being used, a driver for almost every other smart card that is supported on Linux.

If you are familiar with old applications, you would have noticed that objects were referred to as "slot1_1", which meant the first object on the first slot of the driver, or "1:1", and several other obscure methods depending on the application. The "slots" notion is an internal to PKCS#11, which is inherently unstable (re-inserting may change the slot number assignment), thus these methods to refer to objects cannot accommodate easily for multiple cards, or for referring to an object within a specific card if multiple are present, nor to easily utilize cards which are under the different drivers. More recent applications support PKCS#11 URIs, a method to identify tokens, and objects within the token which is unique system-wide; the URI looks like:

For GnuTLS applications, only PKCS#11 URIs can be used to refer to objects.

Driver setup and token discovery


On a typical Linux system which runs the pcscd server, and has opensc and p11-kit properly installed the following command should list the nitrokey token once inserted.
    $ p11tool --list-tokens

One of the entries printed should be something like the following.
Token 5:
    URL: pkcs11:model=PKCS%2315%20emulated;;serial=DENK0100424;token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29
    Type: Hardware token
    Model: PKCS#15 emulated
    Serial: DENK0100424
    Module: /usr/lib64/pkcs11/pkcs11/

The above information contains the identifying PKCS#11 URI of the token as well as information about the manufacturer and the driver library used. The PKCS#11 URI is a standardized unique identifier of tokens and objects stored within a token. If you do not see that information, verify that you have all of pcsc-lite, pcsc-lite-ccid, opensc, gnutls and p11-kit installed. If that's the case, you will need to register the opensc token to make it known to p11-kit manually (modern distributions take care of this step). This can be done with the following commands as administrator.
    # mkdir -p /etc/pkcs11/modules
    # echo "module: /usr/lib64/pkcs11/" >/etc/pkcs11/modules/opensc.conf

It is implied that the your system's libdir for PKCS#11 drivers  should be used instead of the "/usr/lib64/pkcs11" path used above. Alternatively, one could append the --provider parameter on the p11tool command, to explicitly specify the driver, as in the following example. For the rest of this text we assume a properly configured p11-kit and omit the --provider parameter.
    $ p11tool --provider /usr/lib64/pkcs11/ --list-tokens

Token initialization


An HSM token prior to usage needs to be initialized, and be provided two PINs. One PIN is for operations requiring administrative (security officer in PKCS#11 jargon) access, and the second (the user PIN ) is for normal token usage. To initialize use the following command, with the PKCS#11 URL listed by the 'p11tool --list-tokens' command; in the following text we will use $URL to refer to that.
    $ p11tool --initialize "$URL"

Alternatively, when the driver supplied supports a single card, the URL can be specified as "pkcs11:" as shown below.
    $ p11tool --provider  /usr/lib64/pkcs11/ --initialize "pkcs11:"

The initialization commands above will ask to setup the security officer's PIN, which for nitrokey HSM is by default "3537363231383830". At the initialization process, the user PIN will also be asked. The user PIN is PIN which must be provided by applications and users, in order to use the card. Note that the command above (prior to GnuTLS 3.5.6) will ask for the administrator's PIN twice, once for initialization and once for setting the user PIN.

Key and certificate generation

It is possible to either copy an existing key on the card, or generate a key in it, a key which cannot be extracted. To generate an elliptic curve (ECDSA) key use the following command.
    $ p11tool --label "my-key" --login --generate-ecc "pkcs11:token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29"

The above command will generate an ECDSA key which will be identified by the name set by the label. That key can be then by fully identified by the PKCS#11 URL "pkcs11:token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29;object=my-key;type=private". If the command was successful, the command above will list two objects, the private key and the public key.
    $ p11tool --login --list-all "pkcs11:token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29"

Note that both objects share the same ID but have different type. As this key cannot be extracted from the token, we need to utilize the following commands to generate a Certificate Signing Request (CSR).

    $ certtool --generate-request --load-privkey "pkcs11:token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29;object=my-key;type=private" --outfile cert.csr
After providing the required information to certtool, it will generate a certificate request on cert.csr file. Alternatively, to generate a self-signed certificate, one can replace the '--generate-request' parameter with the '--generate-self-signed'.

The above generated certificate signining request, will allow to get a real certificate to use for the key stored in the token. That can be generated either with letsencrypt or a local PKI. As the details vary, I'm skipping this step, and I'm assuming a certificate is generated somehow.

After the certificate is made available, one can write it in the token. That step is not strictly required, but in several scenarios it simplifies key/cert management by storing them at the same token. One can store the certificate, using the following command.
    $ p11tool --login --write --load-certificate cert.pem --label my-cert --id "PUBKEY-ID" "pkcs11:token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29"
Note that specifying the PUBKEY-ID is not required, but it is generally recommended for certificate objects to match the ID of the public key object listed previously with the --list-all command. If the IDs do not match some (non-GnuTLS) applications may fail to utilize the key. The certificate stored in the token will have the PKCS#11 URL "pkcs11:token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29;object=my-cert;type=cert".

Testing the generated keys

Now that both the key and the certificate are present in the token, one can utilize their PKCS#11 URL in any GnuTLS application in place of filenames. That is if the application is asking for a certificate file, enter "pkcs11:token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29;object=my-cert;type=cert", and for private key "pkcs11:token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29;object=my-key;type=private".

The following example will run a test HTTPS server using the keys above.

    $ gnutls-serv --port 4443 --http --x509certfile "pkcs11:token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29;object=my-cert;type=cert" --x509keyfile "pkcs11:token=SmartCard-HSM20%28UserPIN%29;object=my-key;type=private;pin-value=1234"
That will setup a server which answers on port 4443 and will utilize the certificate and key on the token to perform TLS authentication. Note that the command above, demonstrates the use of the "pin-value" URI element. That element, specifies the object PIN on command line allowing for non-interactive token access.

Applicability and performance

While the performance of this HSM will most likely not allow you to utilize it in busy servers, it may be a sufficient solution for a private server, VPN, a testing environment or demo. On client side, it can certainly provide a sufficient solution to protect the client assigned private keys. The advantage a smart card provides to OTP, is the fact that it is simpler to provision remotely, with the certificate request method shown above. That can be automated, at least in theory, when a protocol implementation of SCEP is around. In practice, SCEP is well established in the proprietary world, but it is hard to find free software applications taking advantage of it.

Converting your application to use PKCS#11

A typical application written to use GnuTLS as TLS back-end library should be able to use smart cards and HSM tokens out of the box. The only requirement is for the applications to use the high-level file loading functions, which can load files or PKCS#11 URIs when provided. The only new requirement is for the application to obtain the PIN required for accessing the token, that can be done interactively using the PIN callbacks, or via the PKCS#11 URI "pin-value" element. For source examples, I'll refer you to GnuTLS documentation.
Some indicative applications which I'm aware they can use tokens via PKCS#11 URIs transparently, and can be used for testing, are mod_gnutls, lighttpd2, and openconnect.

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